In the second part of the Linux Tutorial, we will learn about dealing with files and folders (directory).

First move to your home directory with (change directory):

Now let us create a directory, named „garage“, with the „make directory“ command:

You have created the garage directory, but you are still inside your home directory. Go into the garage directory with:

Notice,  that the „change directory“ is by far the most important command. You will see, that you will use this command very often.
In the next step, you go „one directory up“, so that you will be in your home directory again. This can be achieved with:

Don’t forget the space between „cd“ and the two dots. The two dots is a sign for the directory above. There is a top-level directory, called the root. There is no directory above the root directory. You can go there with:

Again, there is a space between „cd“ and the „slash“. If you are curious whats inside the root folder, type:

The list command, with the parameter „l“, shows you the directories content. Time to back into our garage directory inside our home directory. Go there with:

The tilde (press Alt-key + tilde-sign) is a sign for our home folder. And we want to go inside the garage folder, which is inside our home folder. We create now a file called „mycar.txt“ and write „bmw“ inside this file. Here we go:

The echo command simply displays the word in quotes, in this case „bmw“. The > character redirects the result („bmw“) into the file, which came behind the „>“ sign. Btw: a single „>“ always create an empty file, even when the file already exists. When you want to attach something to a file simply use „>>“. Let’s look into the file:

We want to copy the file mycar.txt:

And now we want to attach something to our new file:

Check the content of our new file with:

And check the contet of our garage folder with:


Veröffentlicht unter linux.

How to find the windows version on the command-prompt (cmd)

For a more detailed output you can use:


These tutorials explain the Linux operating system (os) step by step. Starting with simple examples and getting more advanced each lesson.

The line where we type in the commands is called the prompt, the blinking something right to it is the cursor.

Lets show who is logged in:

And the hostname of the computer can be shown with:

As you can see, username and hostname are contained in the prompt.

If you want to know the name of the operating system, you can use:

How long the computer is up (not rebooted since) shows the following command:

Clear all the stuff on the screen with:

If you using the arrow keys (up and down), you can browse between the commands you already entered.

When you want to know in which folder you are, use:

It’s short for: print working directory.

Let’s go to your users home directory by typing:

At this location, all the files related to your current user are stored. You home-folder is a special folder. The tilde sign „~“ is a synonym for your home folder. Instead of typing „cd“ you can type „cd ~“ as well. When you’re in your home folder you can see the tilde in the prompt. The tilde sign is a variable. You can output its content to the screen:

Create a directory named garage withe this command:

mkdir is short for: make directory

Most important command of all is „cd“. It means change directory. With this command you can browse in the directory tree.
Let’s switch to the directory „garage“ you recently created by typing:

The prompt, by the way, also shows you in which directory you are. (So you don’t have to type pwd all the time)


If I want to go back in the directory-tree, like one level up, we use:

Don’t forget a space between cd and the two dots. The two dots are a symbol for the upper (superordinate) folder.

If you type the first letters of a command, try to press two times the tab-key, and the command will be completed.
This will you save lots of time and is one of the most useful ways to increase your working speed.

How to get size of whole mysql-db?

SELECT Round(Sum(data_length + index_length) / 1024 / 1024, 1) „size“ FROM information_schema.tables GROUP BY „size“;

Veröffentlicht unter mysql.

If you want to search words that are not spelled correctly you can use mysql’s buildin SOUNDEX function:



Veröffentlicht unter mysql.

Both of them, centralized and decentralized systems, have their unique strengths, advantages, and peculiarities. In this examination, I’ll dive into both concepts. It was an IT related issue that encouraged me to get in touch with this issue, but the concepts and thoughts can be applied to almost every area.
None of both is a better nor superior concept. It depends on the specific situation if centralization or decentralization is a better match. In reality, you will often find a combination of both of them. And sometimes an advantage can be a disadvantage as well, depending on the point of view.

Centralization can appear as decentralization. Imagine a system containing several redundant nodes (client-systems). If they are completely synchronized they seem like a centralized system. You can always wrap an imaginary container around a system, and handle it from outside as an atomic entity. No need to look into the system, as long as you can communicate from outside to it. Think about an enterprise. From a customer perspective, you’ll see one entity – like one centralized system. If you working inside that company, you possibly see yourself as one department, equal to other departments, supplementing the whole system.

Advantages of centralization:

  • easily maintainable
  • changes need’s to be done only in one place, the central-hub
  • no redundancy
  • client-systems dealing with the central-hub can easily be established
  • less complex than decentralized systems
  • Communication needs to be standardized

Advantages of decentralization:

  • Single client-system are dispensable
  • client-systems are more autonomous – can live for themselves
  • Direct communication between client-systems
  • No need for a standardized communication
  • more tolerant against attacks



A quite handy tool for monitoring tcp traffic is tcptrack. Get it with:

and start it with

the interface parameter -i eth0 must be according to your needs, you can check your interfaces with ifconfig.

There is also tcpdump, tcpflow and other nice tools


Sometimes one like to figure out what programs listen at a port. Here we can get an overview with:

Where t=tcp, u=udp, p=show program name, l=show listening ports, n= numeric (not resolve machine names)
The Output could look something like this:



With lsof you can determine easily which program listens on a port and under which user that program runs:


MTA stands for „mail transfer agent“. Popular ones are sendmail, exim and postfix.

If you want to know what MTA is running locally you can check which program listens on port 25:

You might also telnet on port 25 and let the MTA himself respond who he is:


For configuring exim4 the preferred way is to use the graphical interface, call it with:



Some usefull commands:

change your nick

List channels on current server

Join a channel named „channelname“

Leave a channel


Veröffentlicht unter bitchx.