Linux Tutorial Part2

Read Linux Tutorial Part1, before you start here.

Commands you have head about in Part1 are:
whoami, hostname, uname, uptime, clear, pwd, cd, echo, ~ and others.

 

In the second part of the Linux Tutorial, we will learn about dealing with files and folders (directory).

First move to your home directory with (change directory):

cd

Now let us create a directory, named „garage“, with the „make directory“ command:

mkdir garage

You have created the garage directory, but you are still inside your home directory. Go into the garage directory with:

cd garage

Notice,  that the „change directory“ is by far the most important command. You will see, that you will use this command very often.
In the next step, you go „one directory up“, so that you will be in your home directory again. This can be achieved with:

cd ..

Don’t forget the space between „cd“ and the two dots. The two dots is a sign for the directory above. There is a top-level directory, called the root. There is no directory above the root directory. You can go there with:

cd /

Again, there is a space between „cd“ and the „slash“. If you are curious whats inside the root folder, type:

ls -l

The list command, with the parameter „l“, shows you the directories content. Time to go back into our garage directory inside our home directory. Go there with:

cd ~/garage

The tilde (press Alt-key + tilde-sign) is a sign for our home folder. And we want to go inside the garage folder, which is inside our home folder. We create now a file called „mycar.txt“ and write „bmw“ inside this file. Here we go:

echo "bmw" > mycar.txt

The echo command simply displays the word in quotes, in this case „bmw“. The > character redirects the result („bmw“) into the file, which came behind the „>“ sign. Btw: a single „>“ always create an empty file, even when the file already exists. When you want to attach something to a file simply use „>>“. Let’s look into the file:

cat mycar.txt

We want to copy the file mycar.txt:

cp mycar.txt mybike.txt

And now we want to attach something to our new file:

echo "is not a car" >> mybike.txt

Check the content of our new file with:

cat mybike.txt

And check the contet of our garage folder with:

ls -l

 

Linux Tutorial Part1

These tutorials explain the Linux operating system (os) step by step. Starting with simple examples and getting more advanced each lesson.

The line where we type in the commands is called the prompt, the blinking something right to it is the cursor.

Lets show who is logged in:

whoami

And the hostname of the computer can be shown with:

hostname

As you can see, username and hostname are contained in the prompt.

If you want to know the name of the operating system, you can use:

uname

How long the computer is up (not rebooted since) shows the following command:

uptime

Clear all the stuff on the screen with:

clear

If you using the arrow keys (up and down), you can browse between the commands you already entered.

When you want to know in which folder you are, use:

pwd

It’s short for: print working directory.

Let’s go to your users home directory by typing:

cd

At this location, all the files related to your current user are stored. You home-folder is a special folder. The tilde sign „~“ is a synonym for your home folder. Instead of typing „cd“ you can type „cd ~“ as well. When you’re in your home folder you can see the tilde in the prompt. The tilde sign is a variable. You can output its content to the screen:

echo ~

Create a directory named garage withe this command:

mkdir garage

mkdir is short for: make directory

Most important command of all is „cd“. It means change directory. With this command you can browse in the directory tree.
Let’s switch to the directory „garage“ you recently created by typing:

cd garage

The prompt, by the way, also shows you in which directory you are. (So you don’t have to type pwd all the time)

 

If I want to go back in the directory-tree, like one level up, we use:

cd ..

Don’t forget a space between cd and the two dots. The two dots are a symbol for the upper (superordinate) folder.

If you type the first letters of a command, try to press two times the tab-key, and the command will be completed.
This will save your time. It’s one of the most useful ways to increase your working speed.

Linux Tutorial Part2 >>